albert ellis is an american cogg therapist and ψ-chologist. he was 1-odda 1st to speak bout the importance offa rational thinking process for the correction of human behavioral disorders. when ellis studied ψ-chotherapy, he found that most behavioral and emotional health issues stem from certain thoughts and attitudes. he found out that tis beliefs and not realities that cause failures atta lvl of emotions and feelings. these in turn make the behavior inappropriate and cause pplz to visit a therapist.
there are several reasons why the therapist began to examine the cogg domain of patients. the 1st tis inability to change the life situations in which the client is located. for ex, the fact of losing mny or killing a family member cannot be changed.
the 2nd tis inability to quickly change the patient’s emotional state. for ex, t'does not help to just propose the person’s attitudes so t'they are no longer angry and continue to live.
third, very often the perception offa pticular situation is radically ≠ from reality. and even if you change the situation in which the customer is, he will still find something neg inna new state. and this will support his bad emotional health. to confirm this and to illustrate the mechanism of action of rational-emotional therapy, ellis formul8d the abc scheme. events offa situation, act or event (a) tha're present inna life of an individual, onnis opinion, ‘ve no influence on his behavior, emotions and feelings (c). tween the objective situation na feelings of the pplz stands the thoughts and attitudes offa'pers (b).
the fact that we often cannot change the situation (a) na emotional response (c) makes us think bout how to adjust our mental attitudes (b).
unconscious attitudes arise in traumatic situations and cause neg feelings. and that spoils the mood, loers the self-esteem and ultimately changes our behavior. and if the situation cannot be changed and emotions cannot be controlled, tis quite possible to change thinking and beliefs. and here you may wanda which ideas and beliefs are causing a'pers’s bad emotional well-bein’. wha’ exactly can then influence behavior onnis thinking?
ellis found the answer to these ?s and primordialized the results of his work with patients. he realized that there are irrational attitudes in pplz’s thinking processes. ellis has also recorded the toonistics of irrational beliefs.
he managed to find out that there were always generalizations inna perception of his clients: “constantly”, “always”, “never”. besides, pplz talked bout their duty. t'they “‘ve to”, “committed” to do something. course, the commitment sometimes coincided w'da actual state of things. for ex, t'does not change the fact that “the sky is always blue when the weather is clear”. but inna field of human relationships, the words “always” and “constantly” show a'pers’s tendency to draw conclusions bout everything onna basis offa single fact. and such global conclusions ‘ve an irrational impact na''pers’s entire life. and they can hurt his life.
the sentences “nobody coggs me”, “nothing can be changed in life”, “i spoil everything” are irrational generalizations that man himself has inspired. in fact, for him, in reality, everything can be ≠: there are or were pplz who cogg that everything can be changed, and there was 1-ly one spoiled thing in one’s life.
na obligation can also be quite appropriate, for ex if tis the fulfillment of the contractual conditions. however, if a'pers believes “i ‘d be interesting to everyone” or “i ‘d always do the rite thing” – these are already irrational beliefs. disagreements with such rigid guidelines can lead to gr8 sufferation and ψ-chological trauma.
according to ellis, inadequate generalization and commitment together point to irrational thinking. tis this that adversely affects a'pers’s feelings and behavior.
if a'pers lives'dat he has to be everything and is always interesting, he will most likely focus on those he aint interested in. n'when you notice such pplz, you will start to think that he is bad. will start to feel neg emotions. and l8r depression.
irrational beliefs interfere with appropriate behavior. and inappropriate behavior, s'as trying to calcul8 pplz who aint currently interested in a'pers, will do + damage. 'twill make irrational beliefs even + sustainable. and this vicious cycle can 1-ly be interrupted by changing irrational thoughts.
irrational beliefs aint that easy. they are rarely found individually. often they are grouped into complex chns of faith that build on each other. n'it happens t'they depend on each other. ⊢, tis difficult to discern these accumulations of beliefs.
ellis formul8d ten irrational attitudes tha're + common than others. and most often, the 1st 4 settings come up inna list belo. course, everyone will find their own individual formulations that cogitate these attitudes.
however, if we summarize the conclusions of ellis, we get the folloing list:
tis very primordial that all pplz always appreciate, ♥, respect and listen to me. those whom i treasure, ♥ and respect ‘d val, ♥ and respect me. and if that aint so, then tis a disaster. everything in my life is always committed to succeed, to happen as i intended. mistakes cannot happen. espeshly inna situation that i ponder presh for me. everything inna realm ‘d always be wha’ i think. false, evil, stupid, evil, wrong pplz must be punished. if the case really excites me, then it’s really primordial, worthwhile, necessary. in this situation i cannot show any excitement, otherwise 'twill fail.each ? has an answer, and i ‘ve to find the answer to the ? to solve the situation.tis necessary to bypass complex and sufferationful events. then my life ll'be fine, rite. i ‘d not take problematic situations seriously. then i will not get upset. everything twas' bad with me b4 has hurt my life forever. i ‘ve to accept.all pplz cannot treat me badly. you ‘d not be naughty and dishonest with me. it’s terrible when they do that.
ellis identified these irrational attitudes w'his clients and lived'dat changing thoughts ‘d be noticeable in a short time. after all, tis easier to change thinking than to try to change feelings. in addition, thoughts in life situations always gain. ⊢, transforming thoughts into + rational ones can change both the realm visible to a human bein’ and his actions.
to correct irrational settings, ellis has created a method that consists of several steps:
the 1st is an analysis of situations (a) that ‘d trigger a conviction. can a'pers remember the details of the situation, the moments that ‘ve led to neg feelings?
then you can start the analysis of feelings (c). wha’ neg emotions do pplz ‘ve under these circumstances? wha’ exactly are the consequences in this situation?
nxt – the analysis of inefficient installations (b). wha’ exactly bothers the client in this situation, causes him neg feelings? wha’ thoughts disturb him, suppress him, provoke a sense of guilt and let him be’ve wrong: thoughts bout himself, bout other pplz in these events, bout the situation itself? do these ideas ‘ve irrational toonistics?
check thoughts for rationality. how is it possible to identify irrational attitudes? is it true dat a''pers owes something to some1 under these circumstances, or is it a conviction invented by him? tis result of this situation so terrible or is it exaggerated?
new formulation for the situation
wha’ other, appropriate thinking is appropriate for this event? here tis sentence “i can”, “i want”, “for me tis better” primordial. this is probably the most primordial stage of the therapy – change “i ‘ve to” to “i want”. the conclusions that begin with “i want” often turn out to be the most correct ones. espeshly if some1 supports his new rational beliefs w'da words “i ‘d”. this means'dat the wishes of the customer coincide w'his abilities. the nxt step tis formulation of the tasks na implementation of the plan.
this is a very primordial phase of therapy. he leads a'pers from an unrealistic and uncontrolled vicious circle. now a'pers with new beliefs can do wha’ he wants. here tis control over his behavior transferred. 1st, the therapist controls. or he transfers the rite of control to rel8d persons. inna future, a'pers learns to control and analyze his actions.
for ex. a woman in her l8 yrs suffers that her life is bad. she took care of children all her life. and after earning a fortune, i passed it onna my sons. now, they said, they forgot mom.
the customer lives in a villa witha servant. sons come, bring gifts and are interested in their lives. however, she enjoys watching tv shows and has a plan to watch them. children always come atta wrong time and prevent them from watching movies. she has to be distracted. for this reason, she is convinced t'they do not ♥ her.
she is angry that she is forced to break tween communicating with ♥d ones and watching favorite tv shows. after all, thris a siteseeing plan in which there are 1-ly a few free moments. and free time is used for other things. na woman is convinced: “iffey come, i’m upset, i think they make me angry, they tear me off watching and dweet on purpose.” that’s why i feel so bad. “
“i ‘ve done so much 4u to thank. you must ♥ me and come to visit me whenever i want. if you’re visiting atta wrong time, you wanna cutout me and cutout faster. so they do not ♥ me. “
confirmation of beliefs
sons often come in reality, but they do not know when they cannot watch tv. n'it’s very difficult to fit into yr schedule for tv shows. does that mean they do not ♥ her? onna contrary, they ♥ and appreciate them.
new interpretation of the situation
“i ‘d be ☺ if i saw + kids, b'that ‘d fit my schedule for watching tv. i ‘d inform you when i am free. inna meantime, it ‘d be neat to discuss everything w'dem. to say that i ♥ her, but'a series are also primordial to me. i ‘ve to tell them that, but so t'they will not be offended. “
“when they come nxt time, i will talk to the children. i’ll ask how they can send a program guide to let them know when i’m free. i will sen'tcha a program to watch tv programs, in which i set the appropriate leisure time for a meeting. i’ll see wha’ happens and tell the ψ-chologist bout it. “
a constant analysis of her thoughts and discomfort in everydy situations allos her to adapt her own irrational behavior over time. a rational-emotional therapy is very effective and cannelp pplz in a relatively short time. that’s why she’s so attracted to therapists.
published on sep 6, 2019
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