maria razina. jan 5, 2020, 17:46 – regnum the beginning of the formation offa concentration camp system for prisoners of war inna south of Яussia was the moment when the white movement had its own territory in this region inna summer of 1918. previously, the practice of previous repression was primarily to exe bolsheviks who were imprisoned. local prisons were controlled by the cossack authorities and ‘d not be used for the needs of the white army,
w'da intensification of the military confrontation tween the red na volunteer army, the № of red army prisoners of war grew steadily. they already joined the prisoners of war of the 1st realm war in this zone. the № of prisoners of war onna territory of the gr8 don army was 5 thousand by jul 1, 1918. in ≤ 6 mnths, in dec, there were 6,100 pplz.,
this required substantial material resrcs from the white leadership. funds were needed to maintain the prisoners, to organize the camps, and to keep the guards’ salaries. + than 100,000 rubles were needed to maintain prison administration onna territory of the gr8 don army inna middle of 1918; in 1918, 3,650,000 rubles were needed for food for prisoners.
the need for funds to maintain prisoners of war grew steadily. this was due to several factors. 1st, the struggle w'da bolsheviks escal8d, and in this context the № of prisoners of war increased significantly. 2nd, there was a significant price increase in all sectors. this required a steady increase inna means for maintenance and expenditure of the households. the third factor was rel8d to the fact that guards left the srvc everywhere. for this reason, the salary of the workers had to be increased in order not 1-ly to keep existing workers b'tll so to attract new ones.
all prisoners of the red army were sent to slave labor according to the instructions. this did not bring any material benefit to the volunteer army, since all the income from the prisoner’s work was used to c’oer the maintenance costs.
general kiselevsky’s secret list of directorates and institutions of volunteer army no. 4 dated may 25, 1919, contained 5 concentration camps: in azov, novorossiysk, stavropol, inna medvezhensky and sviatokrestovsky districts inna stavropol province. in some documents they were called concentration camps, in others “camps of captured red army soldiers”.
according to the instructions for sorting and forwarding prisoners of war, which were developed onna basis of the order for the gr8 army of donskoy dated jan 28, 1919 no. 228, all prisoners of war were divided into 3 categories:
“intelligent professions” and cossacks who ‘ve voluntarily joined the ranks of the reds; commissars, agitators, seafarers, commanders of units; persons who ‘ve committed crimes and foreigners (jews, latvians and others); miners, workers, elder military officials who ‘ve “forgotten the oath”; violently mobilized and showing no vigorous activity.
prisoners of war belonged to the 1st category and were brought to court on site, the 2nd to concentration camps. the third group was divided into two pts: those who expressed a desire to fite the bolsheviks with weapons in hand, and who were guarded inna villages of the front or under forced labor.
the oldest of all prisoner-of-war camps in zones controlled by the volunteer army was novorossiysk camp. he was converted from a novorossiysk prison. the prisoners of the donskoy nother nearby fronts entered the camp. on sep 1, 1918, the № of camps was 4801 pplz.
the camp structure was similar to other similar camps, including the azov camp. b4 captive red army soldiers were sent to the camp, they ‘d be divided into ≠ categories. belonging to a certain group determined their future fate. after entering novorossiysk camp, prisoners of war were assigned to ≠ jobs. as the orders for the novorossiysk concentration camp show, the list of jobs to which prisoners were sent was wide. many worked as nurses in hospitals in novorossiysk (112 pplz were posted in sep 1918). in addition, a large № of concentration camp prisoners were made available t'work for the all-Яussian zemstvo association of the southeast committee (100 pplz were deployed in sep 1918). those prisoners of war who were sent t'work were excluded from the list of prisoners inna camp and deprived o'their alloances. from that moment on, they were completely under the jurisdiction of the institutions to which they were sent. the numerous documents received from the camp show that the labor requirements of various novorossiysk organizations were enormous. letters from hospitals, retail stores, bakeries, laundries, and many other facilities, swell as individuals, were received regularly asking to send prisoners t'work to help the concentration camp. the command of the camp did not prevent the active posting of prisoners of war t'work, since in this case the prisoners were exempted from all camp alloances and received no rations or robes atta camp’s expense. after he was sent t'work, all clothing, food, roofing, nother necessary care fell onna facilities to which prisoners were sent.
the prisoners left the camp not 1-ly cause of the distribution of work. some prisoners were admitted to the volunteer army and went to the front (there were 50 in sep 1918). given the conditions, this route was actually the 1-ly one that helped elder prisoners of war manage their financial situation. the soldiers ration was much betta tha' the camp ration and wha’ was fed at work, the soldiers were provided with uniforms and a roof ‘oer their heads. all odda main assets of the military circle went into maintaining the army, the situation inna background was much + difficult. institutions that remove prisoners from the camp often needed + hands, but they took as much as they ‘d take.
prisoners of war were not 1-ly sent t'work and voluntarily left the army, but ‘d also simply be released from their homes. the main reason for this was disabilities and serious injuries during the fitin’. such decisions were not an exception, but a constant rule. within a mnth, in sep 1918, 143 pplz were released from the novorossiysk concentration camp. these decisions were most likely determined by the camp’s difficult ownership situation. possibilities and means were not sufficient to also care for healthy prisoners, espeshly for seriously ill patients.
given the war and prison conditions inna novorossiysk camp, the death rate among prisoners was not high. the camp’s orders indicate that 4 to 11 pplz died each mnth, and there were no deaths in a few mnths. none of the cases described inna orders indicated the causes of death, but it can be assumed that the prisoners died of various diseases caused by extremely poor nutrition and difficult living conditions. in addition to these reasons, prisoner deaths ‘d be caused by an abdominal epidemic that spread to novorossiysk in dec 1918.
the financial situation of the novorossiysk camp was not significantly ≠ from that of the normal residents of novorossiysk na okrug. often there was not enough mny for basic household items like heating. correspondence on heating and litin’ shows that both were seriously saved. there was not enough kerosene and there was no opportunity to prepare the necessary amount of firewood for the winter. these circumstances worsened the already difficult situation of prisoners of war.
there are no srcs of wha’ happened to the novorossiysk camp after the establishment of soviet power, so the fate of the camp is unknown. one can 1-ly assume that, as in many similar camps, elder prisoners of war were released after the victory of the red and that the camp itself was converted into a prison again.
similar to the novorossiysk camp, the stavropol concentration camp was established for bolshevik prisoners of war. the government of the volunteer army created the camp inna summer of 1919 and placed it inna peter and paul barracks. unlike other camps set up by the volunteer army inna zones it controls, the camp in stavropol was mainly filled by prisoners of war from countries – members of the 4th ∪. you ‘ve been in stavropol since the 1st realm war.
w'da outbreak of civil war, even b4 the arrival of whites in stavropol territory, the situation w'da prisoners of war was a complete anarchy. onna whole, they were left to their own devices. the № of prisoners was not taken into account, and control ‘oer the discipline na deployment o'their workforce were discontinued. after stavropol was occupied by the volunteer army, the new government attempted to titeen the rules for the maintenance of prisoners of war na deployment of its workers. this was extremely difficult cause twas almost impossible to determine the exact № and national composition of the prisoners.
b4 this attempt to unify the system of maintaining and operating prisoners of war among companies, there was an unwritten set of rules for the employment of prisoners of war. this was another reason why the new white leadership was unable to create a universal prison system. every city or village, company, or government institution had its own prices. the administration of the volunteer army wanted to ensure that employers did not loer their wage rates belo the minimum lvl set by the authorities. control was pticularly problematic in rural zones. the farmers often had no mny to come to terms w'da prisoners. for this reason, the authorities alloed benefits in kind for rural prisoners inna form of grain and oil to them. the prisoners tried to sell their essentialisms onna mkt themselves and to obtain all the necessary means.
in jan 1919, new standards for the maintenance of prisoners of war were adopted to alleviate their situation. prisoners ‘d receive a mnthly salary of 25 rubles, 15 rubles for clothing repairs, 2.5 rubles for food in stavropol and 3 +. however, due to inflation inna spring of 1919, these rates were doubled. by these standards, prisoners ‘d ‘ve received at least two pounds of bread, ½ a pound of butter, one pound of potatoes, and ½ a pound of flour.
til the creation of the white government na transfer of all prisoners of war to a new camp inna peter and paul barracks, the prisoners were held inna arena. w'da outbreak of the civil war, the prisoners there received practically no food, were not provided with clothing and basic food. in mid-may 1918, atta request of the prisoners of war, their salary was rezd to two rubles a dy. this ‘d be enough for lunch. still, it made life easier for the prisoners.
during the course of 1918, the shots of prisoners of war spread. the № of prisoners of war in pticular decreased inna province, where they were not closely monitored. but in stavropol, many prisoners managed to escape despite much + serious controls.
the work of the prisoners inna stavropol territory was mainly used by farming families who had lost their breadvictor either inna 1st realm war or inna civil war and had no other src of survival than housekeeping. other common employers of prisoners of war were farms alongside the farmers who wanted to increase their production.
the prisoners of war labor was extremely cheap. hiring simple workers was + expensive. even after the frontline soldiers returned to the stavropol territory from the war, and as a result, the № of workers increased significantly, many preferred to use prisoners t'work to save the mny needed under the difficult war conditions. this was used, among other things, by the city authorities of stavropol, who actively used the prisoners’ work inna urban economy. for this reason, unemployment flourished inna city. free pplz ‘d not get a job cause cheap prison labor was widespread. such a balance of power condemned hundreds of workers to a ½-starved existence. in addition to the obvious material benefits of using labor for prisoners, there was another crit factor. many prisoners of war were skilled workers who ‘d not be replaced by ordinary workers.
inna spring of 1919, the white government decided to assess the size and national composition of the prisoners of war. this process has become extremely problematic. there were no administrative structures inna province that ‘d hold such an event. in addition, many rural prisoners, w'da help of farmers, hid from registration. the farmers who hid them at home were afraid of taking prisoners after registration, whose work was so necessary for agriculture. even under the conditions of the civil war, the lives of prisoners of war inna villages were acceptable. they had no mny, but'a villagers provided them with food as wages.
for a long time in captivity, under conditions of unstable power, the prisoners managed to form ptnerships to defend their interests from the administration and local residents. they were inna stavropol ring, collecting general mny for which they bought groceries, appointed cooks for themselves, and monitored the condition o'their clothes and shoes. they were supplied with firewood and soap once a mnth.
there was a system of administrative punishment for prisoners for violations. they ‘d be fined or arrested, but since there was no continually functioning surveillance system for prisoners of war, they were vrtly unaffected. repressive measures were not used to force prisoners as this was not necessary. the prisoners realized that work was their 1-ly way of survival. they received mny or essentialisms for their work that helped them to live.
w'da appearance of the red army prisoners of war in stavropol under white power, the ? o'their status arose. the leadership of the volunteer army decided to put their work on an = fting w'da prisoners of war inna province. their food was as high as that of the foreigners caught. in oct, the same wage system was introduced for both categories: feed 20 rubles a dy, earn 100 rubles a mnth, and another 50 rubles for uniforms. in addition, the city administration of stavropol provided 7,500 rubles for the purchase of winter clothing for prisoners of the red army.
the 1-ly difference tween captured red army soldiers and foreigners was the fact t'they did not work inna country and always stayed inna city. this was due to the fact that urban conditions for the surveillance of prisoners were adjusted and t'they ‘d easily escape their employers in farms. inna summer of 1919, + than 50 bolshevik prisoners worked intensively onna processing of firewood and coal, and cleaned the zone of the city na cesspool. wrt the acute labor shortage, city authorities ‘ve consistently called for an increase inna № of prisoners in this category. inna summer of 1919, the white government of stavropol took a № of measures to strengthen control ‘oer the red army prisoners of war and opened a new camp inna peter and paul barracks.
the prisoners were 1-ly inna camp at nite. everyone went t'work during the dy. this camp ‘d ‘ve been run by employers. perhaps the 1-ly unpleasant fact for prisoners who moved to a new camp was t'they lost their freedom of movement and now 1-ly moved with spesh permission. of the known №s for the camp, the № of foreign prisoners in nov 1919 was 1-ly 101. the control of the prisoners of war inna camp was not very tite. somd' prisoners also made mny onna side. the camp guards released her t'work for a fee.
the last document onna history of prisoners of war in stavropol under the regime of the volunteer army dates from dec 1919. it s'aid that 23 foreign prisoners of war received their salaries inna last mnth. the final conclusion to the story of the prisoners of war inna north caucasus was established when the red army was conquered in jan 1920.
the largest among other camps organized in zones controlled by the volunteer army was the azov concentration camp for prisoners of war. twas founded to accept prisoners of war from the don front. the camp was onna outskirts of the city inna barracks of the 235th reserve infantry regiment, which stayed here from 1916 to early 1918. twas ptially fenced, ptially fenced with two rows of barbed wire and surrounded by a ditch. inna camp there was a law firm, a guard house, aptments for an officer’s dormitory and a security barracks.
according to the instructions to the head of the concentration camp, signed by the head of all don pows, major general elkin, the tasks of the 1st included:
registration of all inc prisoners of war; camp surveillance; care for satisfaction, care, treatment of patients, education, training of workers and education of prisoners of war inna spirit of the christian faith, strict discipline and morality.
the camp leader was ordered to invite a city priest to conduct religious talks. in addition, according to the instructions, all prisoners of war ‘d be divided into groups according to their manual knowledge for further work. healthy prisoners of war were tasked with all the work required inna camp.
the instructions paid close attention to the hygienic conditions of the prisoners of war. everyone who had just arrived atta camp ‘d be accommodated in a spesh hut, washed inna bathhouse, disinfected his clothes and a med examination carried out, if possible onna dy of arrival. the patients ‘d ‘ve been admitted to hospitals. in order to monitor the hygienic condition of the camp, a military sanitation commission was set up w'da mandatory pticipation of 1-odda nurses. 1-odda tasks of the commission was to carry out an inspection of the hygienic condition of the camp every two weeks, w'da gr8est attention bein’ paid to the quality of food and wata, the kitchen, prisoner of war clothing, a bathhouse, laundry, latrines, etc.
despite strict instructions for dividing the prisoners of war into groups and sending them t'work, we can conclude from the numerous reprts from the representative of the representative of the chief of all prisoners of war inna don region, lieutenant sosedov, that the command follos all the above-mentioned instructions very rarely on site were and were often not envisaged at all: “they take prisoners who wanna go somewhere and do not pay attention to instructions and words.” dep'onna requirements of ≠ units, captive red army soldiers were distributed for various jobs b4 they were sent to the concentration camp. commissions for the distribution of prisoners of war were not appointed, and all were dismantled for work inna front zone. this order did not correspond to the command of the army group of the gr8 don army nor to the ordinary residents who were counting on free labor sent by the command. 1-odda army foremen onnis telegram to the leader of the army group complained that private individuals “take prisoners of war rich and wealthy” and dat a' village under his control is popul8d by women, the elderly, and children who ‘ve lost their breadvictors ‘ve no prisoners of war for work.
the realities of the war na financial situation of the military circle made adjustments to existing instructions and as a result their implementation was minimized. this mainly affected health problems, as the typhoid and resting epidemic worsened from dy to dy. according to the propaganda deptment inna city of azov, 1,000 out of 10,000 prisoners of war inna camp were sick. mortality reached 100 pplz a dy. the camp was overcrowded, over 500 pplz lived in each hut, some prisoners of war had to spend the nite onna street, which contributed to the development of the epidemic. the overcrowding of the camp caused problems to provide all prisoners of war with food. the daily ration was ½ a pound of bread and a third of the soldier’s pot. the prisoners were forced to sell the remains o'their clothing to the guard at exceptionally lo prices. employees took advantage of the prisoners’ desire to go t'work or into town t'get bread and took bribes to take them out of line. such conditions forced a large № of prisoners to join the volunteer army. they were looking forward to bein’ sent to the front. the prisoners were extremely exhausted and weakened due to hunger and epidemics. the prisoners said, “it ‘d be better if we were shot onna spot than forcing to experience such horrors.”
the serious situation of prisoners of war is also indicated by some brite cases of burial of prisoners, all of which are stated inna same certificate from the propaganda deptment. 1-odda deceased was dragged inna'da grave and buried, but since the bodies were buried flat, the “dead”, who warmed himself underground, crawled out and came to his hut. another “passed out” who passed out woke up na' stretcher onna way to the cemty.
official data onna situation of prisoners of war inna azov concentration camp are also confirmed by the memories of elder prisoners. some o'em were left behind by g. n. cherkes, who was taken from novocherkassk prison to the azov camp. onnis memoirs, he wrote: “all prisoners were ½ dressed, bareft, in rags that lay on bare floors in huts that were not heated. each prisoner received 400 g. von brot, borsch once a dy with rotten cabbage without potatoes, sometimes, in rare cases, they gave fish soup with rotten fish, twas' a prisoner ration. “
the elder prisoner of war v. s. sokolov left another memory of the azov camp. he wrote t'they 1-ly ate wha’ they ‘d get from relatives or residents. the prisoners wanted t'work inna city t'get wata and bread. there was a queue for such work. the residents felt sorry for the prisoners: “we drove all over molokanovka, na residents always gave food. ⊢, everyone who came across dishes to bring wata pondered themselves ☺. “
after the red army conquered rostov in early jan 1920, the camp was abandoned on its own.
it can be ∴ from indirect data from various srcs that several thousand pplz died inna azov camp. the dead prisoners were buried in mass graves. at least two mass graves belonging to the azov camp ‘ve already been discovered during archaeological excavations. one o'em was discovered during excavations at 9 inzenskaya street in 2012. according to i.s.
another was located at 141 kollontaevsky street in spring 2018. at least 172 pplz were found in a mass grave on inzenskaya street and at least 200 pplz on kollontaevsky street. during anthropological studies that were carried out onna basis of human remains were found onna street. no bones with violent death were found onna bones, but no specific causes were diagnosed. in addition, + than ½ of the remains showed various signs of sufferation effects on d'body during the course of this anthropological study. from this data, tis ∴ that the pplz buried in this mass grave had a lo social status and were influenced by many neg factors both in childhood and throughout life.
during the 2nd realm war, soldiers who died during the liberation of azov were buried inna mass graves of the elder azov concentration camp. on may 9, 1971, a monument was opened inna city, dedicated to the memory of the victims of the civil war na soldiers who died in realm war ii.
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