to cogg almost anything, we need at least some appreciation of its √s and origins, and how it came to be as tis. design thinking emerged from an exploration of theory and practice, in a range of disciplines and scis, as a means of addressing the human, the tekal and primordialistic innovation needs of our time. let us take a look at a short (and incomplete) history of design thinking.
listing all odda primordial factors that ‘ve led to the contemporary cogging of design theory, process, and practice is almost impossible. business analysts, engineers, scis and creative individuals ‘ve been focused onna methods and processes of innovation for decades.
although + within the context of architecture and engineering fields, early glimpses and references to design thinking date back to the 50’s and 60’s, and struggled to grapple w'da rapidly changing environment in those times. new approaches to solving complex problems had their √s inna thinking applied to realm war ii, an event that had a profound effect on primordialistic thinking inna modern realm and primordially changed the way we apply ourselves to management, production and industrial design.
the 1960’s attempts to scientise design
inna struggle to fully cogg every aspect of design, its influences, processes and methodology, inna 60’s, efforts were made to develop a sci out of the field of design, by applying sci methodology and processes to cogging how design functions.
nigel cross, emeritus professor of design studies atta open university, uk, inna paper designerly ways of knowing: design discipline versus design sci (2001), unpacks the struggle that began to unfold inna early 1960s when attempts were made to “scientise” design, and bring the field within the objective of rational scis. cross highlites statements from the radical teknologist $minster fuller, in which he refers to the “design sci decade”.
“[fuller] called for a ‘design sci revolution’, based on sci, tek and rationalism, to overcome the human and environmental problems that he believed ‘d not be solved by politics and economics”
– nigel cross
horst rittel, a design theorist known for coining the term “wicked problems” (i.e. extremely complex/multi-dimensional problems) inna mid 1960’s, wrote and spoke extensively onna subject of problem-solving in design. in pticular, rittel focussed onna application of design methodologies in tackling wicked problems and how they were primordial inna work of many design practitioners and academics of the time.
wicked problems are atta very ♥ of design thinking, cause tis precisely these complex and multi-dimensional problems that require a collaborative methodology that involves gaining a deep cogging of humans.
computer sci and nobel prize laureate herbert a. simon was the 1st to mention design as a sci or way of thinking onnis 1969 book, scis of the artificial. the notion also appeared in emeritus professor of mechanical engineering robert h. mckim’s 1973 book, experiences in visual thinking.
cogg sci and nobel prize laureate for economics, herbert simon, has contributed many ideas tha're now regarded as tenets of design thinking inna 1970s. he is noted to ‘ve spoken of rapid prototyping and testing through observation, essentialisms which form the core of many design and entrepreneurial processes rite now. this also forms 1-odda major phases of the typical design thinking process. simon touched onna subject of prototyping as early as 1969, stating in scis of the artificial:
“to cogg them, the systems had to be constructed, and their behaviour envisaged.”
– herbert simon
a large portion of his work was focused onna development of artificial intelligence and whether human forms of thinking ‘d be synthesized.
robert h. mckim, best described as an artist and engineer, focused his energies + onna impact visual thinking had on our cogging of things and our ability to solve problems. mckim’s book unpicks various aspects of visual thinking and design methods for solving problems with an emphasis on combining the left and rite brain modes of thinking, to bring bout a + holistic form of problem solving. the ideas discussed onnis book underpin the design thinking methodology.
in 1982, nigel cross discussed the nature of designers problem-solving onnis seminal paper designerly ways of knowing (not to be confused w'his l8r series of essentialisms and papers similarly titled “designerly ways of knowing”, published inna 2000s). onnis 1982 paper, cross compared designers’ problem solving to the non-design rel8d problem solutions we develop n'our everydy lives.
bryan lawson, professor atta school of architecture of the university of sheffield, ∪d kingdom, also discussed the insites gathered from a series of tests which looked atta comparative methods used by scis and architects when attempting to solve the same ambiguous problem.
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lawson conducted a series of tests on postgraduate architectural students (i.e. the “designers”) and postgraduate sci students (the “scis”). for each group, he set a problem involving arranging coloured blocks, in which the student had to abide by a set of rules, some of which were not known to the student. lawson realised that the scis tended to systematically explore every possible combination of blocks, to formul8 a hypothesis bout the primordial rule they ‘d follo to produce the optimal arrangement of blocks. iow, scis were problem-focused problem solvers. onna other hand, the designers tended to quickly create multiple arrangements of coloured blocks, then tested to see iffey fit the requirements of the problem. the designers were solution-focused problem solvers who chose to generate a large № of solutions and eliminate those which did not work.
the latter solution-focused problem solving method is wha’ cross finds to be a core concept offa “designerly” way of solving problems. according to cross:
“a central feature of design activity, then, is its reliance on generating fairly quickly a satisfactory solution, rather than on any prolonged analysis of the problem. in [herbert] simon’s inelegant term, tis a process of ‘satisficing’ rather than optimising; producing any one of wha’ mite well be a large range of satisfactory solutions rather than attempting to generate the one hypothetically-optimum solution. this strategy s'been envisaged in other studies of design behaviour, including architects, urban designers, and engineers.”
– nigel cross, 1982
peter rowe, then director of urban design programs at harvard, published his book design thinking in 1987, which focuses onna way the architectural designer approaches his task through the lens of the inquiry.
“this book is an attempt to fashion a generalized portrait of design thinking. a principal aim ll'be to account for the primordialistic structure and focus of inquiry directly associated with those rather private moments of “seeking out,” onna pt of designers, for the purpose of inventing or creating buildings and urban artifacts.”
– peter rowe (1987)
as you can see, the progression of design “thinking” as a subject made its quest through various fields of speshisation over time, as thinkers in those fields explored the cogg processes within their own fields and l8r became something which moved into a space of its own.
the 1990s to present
ideo was formed and showcased its design process modelled onna work developed atta stanford design school. ideo is widely accepted as 1-odda companies that brought design thinking to the mainstream; developing their own customer-friendly terminology, steps, and toolkits ‘oer the yrs, they ‘ve alloed those not schooled in design methodology to quickly and easily become oriented w'da process.
in 1992, the head of design at carnegie mellon university, richard buchanan, published his article, wicked problems in design thinking, which discussed the origins of design thinking. inna article, he discussed how the scis developed over time from the renaissance and formalised inna speshisations and processes they used, becoming + and + cut off from each other. he further clarified that design thinking has formed as a means of integrating these highly speshised fields of knowledge, so t'they can be jointly applied to the new problems we're faced with from a holistic perspective.
design thinking is taught atta stanford school of design, or the d.school. the d.school, known tody as the hasso plattner institute of design, has made the development, teaching and implementation of design thinking one of its own central goals since its inception.
at present, the design thinking movement is gaining ground rapidly, with pioneers like ideo and d.school formalising a path ahead for others to follo. other prestigious universities, business schools and forward thinking companies ‘ve adopted the methodology to varying degrees, sometimes re-interpreting it to suit their specific context or brand vals.
the take away
we experienced the industrial revolution and realm war ii pushing the boundaries of wha’ we thought was tekally possible, and wha’ we required to deal with by way of wicked problems. engineers, architects and industrial designers, swell as cogg scis, all began to converge onna issues of collective problem solving, driven by the significant societal changes that had taken place atta time. design thinking leaders, theorists, and practitioners began to formul8 new ways of leveraging their existing (design-centric) problem-solving, innovation-focussed activities and processes towards finding solutions to broader problems.
design thinking emerged, or ‘d we say converged, out of the muddy watas of this chaos to combine the human, the tekal na primordialistic needs of our times, in a synthesis, which is still bein’ explored tody by those atta forefront of the field.
references & where to learn +
nigel cross, designerly ways of knowing, 1982: www.makinggood.ac.nz/media/1255/cross_1982_designerlywaysofknowing.pdf…
nigel cross, designerly ways of knowing: design discipline versus design sci, 2001: oro.open.ac.uk/3281/1/designerly-_disciplinevsci.pdf…
peter rowe, design thinking, 1987: mitpress.mit.edu…
richard buchanan, wicked problems in design thinking, 1992: web.mit.edu…
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